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Effet d’une supplémentation en corps cétoniques sur la glycémie?

17/02/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge

 

Prior ingestion of exogenous ketone monoester attenuates the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy young individuals
Etienne Myette-Côté              The Journal of Physiology               15 February 2018  

The main objectives of this study were threefold: (1) To determine whether acute ingestion of Kme; (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (2) To compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute Kme supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18–35 years took part in a randomized crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a Kme supplement (ΔG®; 0.45 ml kg−1 body weight) or placebo (water) 30 min before completing a 75-gram OGTT. Blood samples were collected every 15–30 min over a period of 2.5 h. Participants and study personnel performing laboratory analyses were blinded to condition. Kme acutely raised blood D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) to 3.2±0.6 mm within 30 min with levels remaining elevated throughout the entire OGTT. Compared to placebo, Kme significantly decreased glucose area under the curve (AUC; −16%, P = 0.001), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) AUC (-44%, P

< 0.001) and C-peptide incremental AUC (P = 0.005), while improving oral glucose insulin sensitivity index by ∼11% (P = 0.001).

In conclusion, a

Kme supplement that acutely increased β-OHB levels up to ∼3 mm attenuated the glycemic response to an OGTT in healthy humans. The reduction in glycemic response did not appear to be driven by an increase in insulin secretion, but was accompanied by improved markers of insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that ketone monoester supplements could have therapeutic potential in the management and prevention of metabolic disease.

Effets de l’acétaminophène sur la performance?

14/02/2018 | Etudes cardio

 

Acute acetaminophen ingestion improves performance and muscle activation during maximal intermittent knee extensor exercise
Paul T. Morgan                   European Journal of Applied Physiology March 2018, Volume 118, Issue 3, pp 595–605

Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development.

Methods
Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors with each contraction separated by a 2 s passive recovery period. This protocol was completed 60 min after ingesting 1 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 1 g of acetaminophen on two separate visits. Peripheral nerve stimulation was administered every 6th contraction for assessment of neuromuscular fatigue development, with the critical torque (CT), which reflects the maximal sustainable rate of oxidative metabolism, taken as the mean torque over the last 12 contractions. Surface electromyography was recorded continuously as a measure of muscle activation.

Results
Mean torque (61 ± 11 vs. 58 ± 14% pre-exercise MVC) and CT (44 ± 13 vs. 40 ± 15% pre-exercise MVC) were greater in the acetaminophen trial compared to placebo (both P 

< 0.05). Voluntary activation and potentiated twitch declined at a similar rate in both conditions (P > 0.05). However, the decline in electromyography amplitude was attenuated in the acetaminophen trial, with electromyography amplitude being greater compared to placebo from 210 s onwards (P 

< 0.05).

Conclusion
These findings indicate that

acute acetaminophen ingestion might be ergogenic by increasing CT and preserving muscle activation during high-intensity exercise.

Deca dick?

14/02/2018 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Anti-âge

 

Nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training reduces vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation
Steroids Volume 131, March 2018, Pages 7-13     ViniciusGuzzoni

Highlights
• Nandrolone plus strenuous RT impairs acetylcholine-mediated aorta vasodilation.
• Nandrolone plus strenuous RT increased reactive species of oxygen levels.
• Nandrolone plus strenuous RT dramatically reduced vascular NO bioavailability.
• Nandrolone plus strenuous RT increased arterial wall thickness.
• Combination of nandrolone and strenuous RT might lead endothelial dysfunction.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) misuse has increased among adolescents and recreational athletes due to their potential effects on muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, AAS might induce alterations on cardiovascular system, although some controversies regarding AAS on vascular properties remain unknown. To address this question, we aimed to investigate the effects of high doses of nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training (RT) on function and structure of thoracic aorta. Rats were randomized into four groups: non-trained vehicle (NTV), trained vehicle (TV), non-trained nandrolone (NTN), and trained nandrolone (TN), and submitted to 6 weeks of treatment with nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and/or resistance training. In vitro response of thoracic aorta to acetylcholine (ACh) was analyzed. Vascular nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis were evaluated using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2) and hydroethidine fluorescent techniques, respectively. Thoracic aorta was processed for microscopy analyses and tunica media thickness was measured. ACh-mediated relaxation response was impaired in endothelium intact aortic rings isolated from trained rats (TV and TN) as compared with their matched non-trained groups. TN rats showed reduced ACh-mediated vasodilatation than NTN rats. NO production and bioavailability decreased in thoracic aorta of nandrolone-treated rats in relation to their matched non-trained group (NTN vs. NTV; TN vs. TV). ROS production and tunica media thickness were increased in TN rats when compared with TV rats.

These findings indicate that high doses of nandrolone combined with strenuous RT affect NO bioavailability and might induce endothelial dysfunction and arterial morphological alterations.

Pulsed et High Voltage Electric Fields pour les protéines de demain

06/02/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition   Feb 2018   Qijun Wang

Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry.

This review demonstrates that electric field technology has a great potential to enhance food processing by supplementing or replacing the conventional methods employed in different food manufacturing processes. Successful industrial applications of electric field treatments have been achieved in some areas such as microbial inactivation and extraction. However, investigations of HVEFs are still in an early stage and translating the technology into industrial applications need further research efforts.

Rôle des recepteurs aux androgènes sur la masse grasse

02/02/2018 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Perte de poids

 

The androgen receptor in bone marrow progenitor cells negatively regulates fat mass
Patricia K Russell J Endo 2018

It is well established that testosterone negatively regulates fat mass in humans and mice, however the mechanism by which testosterone exerts these effects is poorly understood. We and others have shown that deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice results in a phenotype that mimics the three key clinical aspects of hypogonadism in human males; increased fat mass, and decreased bone and muscle mass. We now show that replacement of the AR gene specifically in mesenchymal progenitor cells (PCs) residing in the bone marrow of Global-ARKO mice, in the absence of the AR in all other tissues (PC-AR Gene Replacements), completely attenuates their increased fat accumulation. Inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue and intra-abdominal retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue depots in PC-AR Gene Replacement mice were 50-80% lower than wild type (WT) and 75-90% lower than Global-ARKO controls at 12 weeks of age. The marked decrease in subcutaneous and viceral fat mass in PC-AR Gene Replacements was associated with an increase in the number of small adipocytes and a healthier metabolic profile compared to WT controls, characterised by normal serum leptin and elevated serum adiponectin levels. Euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies reveal that the PC-AR Gene replacement mice have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity with higher glucose infusion rates compared to WT mice and increased glucose uptake into subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat.

In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence for an action of androgens via the AR in mesenchymal bone marrow PCs to negatively regulate fat mass and improve metabolic function.

Comment ta protéine en poudre se périme?

30/01/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; a review
Kataneh Aalaei   Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 23 Jan 2018

Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance.

Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

Effets d’un supplément de corps cétoniques sur l’endurance?

24/01/2018 | Etudes cardio et Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Effect of acute ingestion of β-hydroxybutyrate salts on the response to graded exercise in trained cyclists
Mark Evans             European Journal of Sport Science Pages 1-11 | Published online: 16 Jan 2018

Acute ingestion of ketone salts induces nutritional ketosis by elevating β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), but few studies have examined the metabolic effects of ingestion prior to exercise. Nineteen trained cyclists (12 male, 7 female) undertook graded exercise (8 min each at ∼30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer on two occasions separated by either 7 or 14 days. Trials included ingestion of boluses of either (i) plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass−1) (CON) or (ii) βHB salts (0.38 g kg body mass−1) in plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass−1) (KET), at both 60 min and 15 min prior to exercise. During KET, plasma [βHB] increased to 0.33 ± 0.16 mM prior to exercise and 0.44 ± 0.15 mM at the end of exercise (both p < .05). Plasma glucose was 0.44 ± 0.27 mM lower (p < .01) 30 min after ingestion of KET and remained ∼0.2 mM lower throughout exercise compared to CON (p < .001). Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was higher during KET compared to CON (p < .001) and 0.03–0.04 higher from 30%VO2peak to 60%VO2peak (all p < .05). No differences in plasma lactate, rate of perceived exertion, or gross or delta efficiency were observed between trials. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 13 out of 19 participants during KET. Acute ingestion of βHB salts induces nutritional ketosis and alters the metabolic response to exercise in trained cyclists.

Elevated RER during KET may be indicative of increased ketone body oxidation during exercise, but at the plasma βHB concentrations achieved, ingestion of βHB salts does not affect lactate appearance, perceived exertion, or muscular efficiency.

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