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La caféine est aussi absorbée par la muqueuse buccale

22/04/2019 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids

 

Caffeine release and absorption from caffeinated gums
Cecile Morris   Food & Function

The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of chewing time on caffeine release from gum and to understand caffeine pharmacokinetics. Caffeine release increased with chewing time (2 min < 5 min

< 10 min). Furthermore, two plasma caffeine concentration peaks were observed suggesting that

caffeine absorption occurs both through the oral mucosa and gastrointestinal tract. This is of practical relevance to maximise caffeine doses and to synchronise effort with peak caffeine concentration.

Rôle anabolique Inter-Organes du GIP

02/04/2019 | Etudes sur les hormones

 

A Physiological Role of Inter-Organ Network between Gastrointestine and Skeletal Muscle on the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Volume
Katsumasa Goto     The FASEB Journal       1 Apr 2019Abstract Number:700.1

Several inter-organ networks have been proposed. In general, gastrointestinal hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is synthesized in and secreted from K cells, regulates nutrient absorption via inhibition of gastric contraction and acid secretion. GIP receptor On the other hand, GIPR expresses in not only a gastrointestinal tract but also β cells in the pancreas. Since GIP also modulates glucose metabolism via insulin synthesis and secretion, GIP is also a member of incretin. Recently, the expression of GIP is also confirmed in skeletal muscle. However, there is no evidence for the inter-organ network between gastrointestine and skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated a physiological role of the inter-organ network between gastrointestine and skeletal muscle via GIP. GIP stimulates myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Expression of GIPR was observed in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes. Knockdown of GIPR induced the down-regulation of Pax7 in C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, GIPR-knockdown-associated depression of myotube formation of C2C12 cells were observed. On the other hand, GIPR-knockdown stimulated proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts. Therefore, GIP-GIPR intracellular signal(s) might play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle volume via the mediation of myogenic differentiative potential.

Effets de la mélatonine sur la régénération nerveuse?

02/04/2019 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Effects of melatonin on neural reconstruction after acute spinal cord injury through regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and autophagy
Yunho Jin     The FASEB Journal       1 Apr 2019Abstract Number:662.2

It has been reported that autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response cause improved hindlimb motor function and reduced damage of axons in spinal cord injured animals, respectively. However, the effects of melatonin on neural reconstruction and motor recovery through regulation of ER stress response and autophagy have not been well described. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of melatonin treatment on neural reconstruction and motor recovery through regulation of ER stress response and autophagy.

To verify the effect of melatonin injection on post-SCI alterations regarding neural cells, autophagy, and ER stress response, we analyzed markers at protein level, and morphological changes. At day 3 after SCI, melatonin did not cause behavioral improvement (p<.05). At molecular levels, melatonin suppressed the loss of astrocytes after SCI (p<.05). Beclin-1 expression was decreased by melatonin treatment (p<.05). In other words, autophagy activation in SCI+MT was lower than that of SCI group, indicating melatonin-mediated suppression of autophagic cell death. In addition, GRP78 expression was preserved in SCI+MT group with no difference compared to non-injured groups. Namely, ER stress response was advanced by melatonin. In histological analysis, it was proved that dendritic branches were preserved by melatonin treatment.

In conclusion, exogenous treatment of melatonin may result in neural reconstruction after SCI through regulating autophagy and ER stress response at the injured spinal segments.

Rôles des polyamines dans l’action anabolique des androgènes?

02/04/2019 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Expression of Genes that Comprise the Core Molecular Clock are Altered in the Atrophied Skeletal Muscle by Androgen Deprivation
Michael L Rossetti     The FASEB Journal       1 Apr 2019Abstract Number:579.1

Skeletal muscle atrophy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality during various pathological conditions. In males, a decrease in the production and/or bioavailability of androgens (termed hypogonadism) directly contributes to muscle atrophy during various pathological conditions. While it is known that androgens prevent muscle atrophy, the mechanism(s) by which androgens mediate this effect are largely undefined. Our laboratory previously showed that mitochondrial turnover is enhanced in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of mice by androgen deprivation induced by castration surgery, and the magnitude of turnover was related to the degree of muscle atrophy.

These data suggest that potentially dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to the muscle atrophy observed following androgen deprivation. To gain a better understanding of that factors that might contribute to changes in mitochondrial quality control during androgen deprived conditions, we subjected total RNA from the TA of sham and castrated mice to microarray analysis. This unbiased approach identified significant changes in expression of genes that comprise the core molecular clock. qRT-PCR confirmed that expression of Brain and Muscle Arntl 1 (Bmal1) was decreased, while expression of Period 1, Period 2, and Period 3 (Per1, 2, & 3) were increased in the TA of castrated mice. When measured across a diurnal cycle, the change in expression of Bmal1, Per1, and Per2 exhibited reduced amplitude under androgen-deprived conditions. Interestingly, strong relationships were observed between the castration-mediated changes of core clock components and the measures of mitochondrial turnover. Specifically, Bmal1 expression was directly related to BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDA protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) protein content (R2 = 0.88), and the expression of core clock components were also directly related to the content of various mitochondrial proteins.

Expression of core clock components were also related to the autophagy marker, p62, and the mass of the TA. Ex post facto analysis of the microarray also identified changes in genes regulating polyamine biosynthesis. As polyamines are known to alter core clock function, we determined whether androgen deprivation altered polyamine content. While castration did not alter Spermine content, there was a significant reduction in the content of Spermidine in the TA of castrated mice.

Overall, these data suggest that reduced Spermidine concentrations may contribute to alterations in the core molecular clock in the skeletal muscle under androgen-deprived conditions, which may in turn contribute to reduced mitochondrial quality control and subsequent muscle atrophy

Quelle efficacité du papier pH pour mesurer l’acidité du sang?

02/04/2019 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires

 

Accuracy of pH Measurements in Blood-Free Balanced Salt Solutions with and without Bovine Serum Albumin—with Four Devices (ABL80, i-STAT®, pH Paper, and pH Probe)
Josephine E. Hees       The FASEB Journal               1 Apr 2019Abstract Number:544.1

Introduction
Accurate and precise measurements are vital in research. Discrepancies between the actual values and values measured by a device can have serious implications on the design and results of an experiment. Thus, it is critical to know what devices provide reliable values. The aim of this study was to compare four different devices commonly used to measure pH in the absence and presence of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).

Methods
A balanced salt solution (NaCl 119 mM, NaHCO3 24 mM, Glucose 5.5 mM, CaCa2 1.6 mM, KCl 4.7 mM, MgSO4 1.17 mM, NaPO4 1.18 mM) with or without 4% BSA was bubbled with different CO2 percentages (2.5%, 3.8%, 5%, 7.5 %, 10%), 30% O2 and N2 as the balance gas using a gas mixer. After a steady state pH was reached, judged by the pH probe, four samples were taken simultaneously, and 3 replicate measurements with each of the four devices were made. The devices used in this study were the ABL 80 FLEX (RADIOMETER, blood gas analyzer), VetScan i-STAT® 1, pH paper (Macherey-Nagel, pH range 6.4 – 8.0) and a pH probe (OAKTON®, pH700). Measured pH values were plotted against the expected pH values for a given concentration of CO2 according to the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation (pH = pKa + log10 ([A−]/[HA]). Linear regression ± SEM was done for each device with and without BSA and the coefficient of determination and regression coefficients were calculated. The mean and difference of each measurement by device were then calculated and used to create Bland-Altman plots (right lower corner in each panel) to assess the agreement of the measuring device with the expected pH.

Results
Except for the pH paper, all devices showed a strong agreement with the expected pH for each CO2 percentage. The addition of BSA to the solution resulted in a trend to more acidic readings and to be even more in agreement with the expected pH for all four devices.

Conclusion
The blood gas analyzer, i-STAT®, and pH probe all proved to be suitable devices for use in measuring the pH of a balanced salt solution in the chosen pH range. The pH paper appeared to be unsuitable to measure the pH within physiological ranges. Additionally, throughout all measurements, the solutions with 4% BSA tended to provide even more accurate values than the solutions without BSA.

Effets directs de l’insuline sur la force?

02/04/2019 | Etudes sur les hormones

 

Responses to Mechanical and Chemical Stimuli are Augmented by Insulin Administration in Neurons Innervating Skeletal Muscle
Norio Hotta     The FASEB Journal               1 Apr 2019Abstract Number:540.7

Abstract
Hyperinsulinemia is known to activate the sympathetic nervous system, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Mechanical or chemical stimuli to skeletal muscle induce sympathoexcitation via group III and group IV thin-fiber afferents. Evidence suggests that insulin both facilitates translocation of molecular candidates for mechano-gated channels and activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels associated with these afferent fibers. We therefore hypothesized that insulin potentiates neural responsiveness to mechanical and chemical stimuli in thin-fiber afferents and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) that sub-serve these neurons in skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE
We investigated the effects of insulin administration on whole-cell current responses to mechanical/chemical stimuli in DRG neurons of normal healthy mice. Further, we examined the impact of insulin on the action potential response to mechanical/chemical stimulation in thin-fiber muscle afferents of normal healthy rats.

METHODS
We performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings using cultured mice DRG neurons. Mechanical stimuli to the cell surface was applied using a stimulation probe with resultant mechanically activated (MA) currents recorded. DRG neurons were also exposed to 1μM capsaicin. Using a rat muscle-nerve preparation in vitro, we applied 1) a ramp-shaped mechanical stimulation and 2) a 1μM capsaicin stimulation to the neuron’s receptive field and measured the elicited action potential utilizing single-fiber recordings.

RESULTS
In cultured DRG neurons, insulin (500 mU) reduced mechanical threshold from 3.6 ± 0.4 to 2.6 ± 0.3 steps (n=17, P<0.05) and increased MA current from −93±12 to −190±43 pA (n=16, P<0.05). These changes were blocked by pretreatment with the insulin receptor inhibitor GSK1838705. Likewise, the total charge transfer induced by capsaicin activated current (fold change from baseline) was significantly higher after insulin administration (3.3±1.2, n=5) than that of control (0.5±0.2, n=6). Again, this difference was prevented by pretreatment with GSK1838705. In the muscle-nerve preparation, the mechanical threshold of thin-fiber muscle afferents was significantly decreased 10 min after insulin injection (500 mU) from 66±16 to 28±12 mN (n=10, P<0.05). This decrease was eliminated by insulin receptor blockade via GSK1838705. Insulin administration also significantly increased the response magnitude to 1μM capsaicin (from 0.05±0.08 Hz before insulin to 0.70±0.40 Hz after insulin, n=5, P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS
The data demonstrate that insulin sensitizes thin fiber afferents and DRG neurons innervating skeletal muscle. Further, these findings suggest that hyperinsulinemia may induce sympathoexcitation via augmentations in the responsiveness of mechano-gated channels and TRPV1 receptors on skeletal muscle thin-fiber afferents.

Effets du neural gliding sur la souplesse?

30/03/2019 | Echauffement et blessures

 

ACUTE EFFECTS OF NEURAL GLIDING ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE
BASKETBALL PLAYERS

K. SMITH AND A. WALDHELM     Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research   VOLUME 33 | NUMBER 2 | FEBRUARY 2019 | e73
University of South Alabama

Introduction: The pre-activity warm-up is a very important
aspect in preparation for competitive sports. Prior research
has demonstrated the ability of a warm-up to influence flexibility, strength and power. Neural gliding is a fairly new intervention used in rehabilitation to improve muscle flexibility and joint
mobility of individuals with musculoskeletal and neuromuscular
injuries but the use of neural gliding in sports performance is
limited.

Purpose: The objective of this study is to compare the
effects of neural gliding and dynamic stretching exercises on
hamstring flexibility and athletic performance in collegiate basketball players.

Methods: Eight-teen NCAA Division II basketball players (8 males, 10 females; age: 18.1 6 0.24; height:
1.78 6 0.09 m; weight: 60.0 6 17.2 kg) volunteered for the
study. Data was collect during a single session and block
assignment was used with 9 individuals (4 males, 5 females)
in each group: neural gliding and dynamic stretching. Before
testing each subject performed the same 5 minute warm-up
which included jogging, running and sprinting. Pre-and postintervention testing included bilateral hamstring flexibility using
the active straight leg test, 10 and 40-yard dash, countermovement vertical jump, and 20-yard shuttle run. Between testing
the participants performed a 5 minute exercise protocol which
included bilateral sciatic nerve gliding or a dynamic lower
extremity stretching program. Multiple 2 3 2 (time by group)
repeated measures ANOVAs with p # 0.05 was used to examine differences.

Results: The results did not show a significant
time by group interactions for all 6 measurements and all main
effects were insignificant except for the countermovement vertical jump (F = 15.0, p = 0.005). Post-hoc paired t tests with
Bonferroni correction (p # 0.025) did not show as significant
difference in countermovement vertical jump performance in
both the dynamic stretching (p = 0.250) or the neural gliding
group (p = 0.107).

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that
both neural gliding and dynamic stretching exercises did not
have a significant effect on hamstring flexibility or 4 athletic
performance tests.

Practical Applications: Neural gliding can
be used as part of the pre-participation warm-up without a negative effect on athletic performance, but more research is needed
to truly determine if neural gliding should be part of a warm-up.

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