Lactate regulates myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts in vitro
Stem Cell Research Volume 12, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages 742–753 Lena Willkomm
•Lactate enhances the serum-withdrawal induced cell cycle arrest in myoblasts.
•Lactate promotes early differentiation in myoblasts.
•Lactate delays late differentiation in myoblasts in a timely manner.
•Lactate increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
•Lactate effects can be reversed by the addition of antioxidants.
Satellite cells (SCs) are the resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue which play a major role in muscle adaptation, e.g. as a response to physical training. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intermittent lactate (La) treatment on the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, simulating a microcycle of high intensity endurance training. Furthermore, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this context was examined. C2C12 myoblasts were therefore repeatedly incubated for 2 h each day with 10 mM or 20 mM La differentiation medium (DM) and in some cases 20 mM La DM plus different antioxidative substances for up to 5 days. La free (0 mM) DM served as a control. Immunocytochemical staining, Western blot analysis and colorimetric assays were used to assess oxidative stress, proliferation, and differentiation. Results show that La induces oxidative stress, enhances cell-cycle withdrawal, and initiates early differentiation but delays late differentiation in a timely and dose-dependent manner. These effects can be reversed by the addition of antioxidants to the La DM. We therefore conclude that La has a regulatory role in C2C12 myogenesis via a ROS-sensitive mechanism which elicits implications for reassessing some aspects of training and the use of nutritional supplements.
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