Equivalent à 24 g par jour pour un culturo de 80 kg et 30 g pour un de 100 kg
Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers
Nasseri A., Jafari A. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2014 Oct 06 [EPUB ahead of print]
AIM: Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers.
METHODS:In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g∙kg-1∙d-1) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in 1 week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of 1-RM for whole body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation.
RESULTS: Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P< 0.05), indicating that
resistance training could partially lower this rate by 17.7%. No significant differences were detected in the levels of serum enzymes across time and groups (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.
anciennes études sur le sujet
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on urinary methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate.
Poortmans JR Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Oct;37(10):1717-20.
It has been claimed that oral creatine supplementation might have potential cytotoxic effects on healthy consumers by increasing the production of methylamine and formaldehyde. Despite this allegation, there has been no scientific evidence obtained in humans to sustain or disprove such a detrimental effect of this widely used ergogenic substance.
Twenty young healthy men ingested 21 g of creatine monohydrate daily for 14 consecutive days. Venous blood samples and 24-h urine were collected before and after the 14th day of supplementation. Creatine and creatinine were analyzed in plasma and urine, and methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate were determined in 24-h urine samples.
Oral creatine supplementation increased plasma creatine content 7.2-fold (P < 0.001) and urine output 141-fold (P < 0.001) with no effect on creatinine levels. Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of methylamine and formaldehyde increased, respectively, 9.2-fold (P = 0.001) and 4.5-fold (P = 0.002) after creatine feeding, with no increase in urinary albumin output (9.78 +/- 1.93 mg x 24 h(-1) before, 6.97 +/- 1.15 mg x 24 h(-1) creatine feeding).
This investigation shows that short-term, high-dose oral creatine supplementation enhances the excretion of potential cytotoxic compounds, but does not have any detrimental effects on kidney permeability. This provides indirect evidence of the absence of microangiopathy in renal glomeruli.
Potential cytotoxic effect of chronic administration of creatine, a nutrition supplement to augment athletic performance.
Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):726-8. Yu PH
Creatine is alleged to be an ergogenic aid to enhance sports performance and recently became a popular sports nutrition supplement. Although short-term supplementation of creatine has not been associated with major health risks, the safety of prolonged use has caused some concern. The present study demonstrates that creatine is metabolized to methylamine, which is further converted to formaldehyde by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). Formaldehyde is well known to cross-link proteins and DNAs, and known to be a major environmental risk factor. SSAO-mediated production of toxic aldehydes has been recently proposed to be related to pathological conditions such as vascular damage, diabetic complications, nephropathy, etc. Chronic administration of a large quantity of creatine can increase the production of formaldehyde, which may potentially cause serious unwanted side-effects.
Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Sep;40(9):1645-52 Candow DG
To determine whether low-dose creatine and protein supplementation during resistance training (RT; 3 d x wk(-1); 10 wk) in older men (59-77 yr) is effective for improving strength and muscle mass without producing potentially cytotoxic metabolites (formaldehyde).
Older men were randomized (double-blind) to receive 0.1 g x kg(-1) creatine + 0.3 g x kg(-1) protein (CP; n = 10), creatine (C; n = 13), or placebo (PLA; n = 12) on training days. Measurements before and after RT included lean tissue mass (air-displacement plethysmography), muscle thickness (ultrasound) of elbow, knee, and ankle flexors and extensors, leg and bench press strength, and urinary indicators of cytotoxicity (formaldehyde), myofibrillar protein degradation [3-methylhistidine (3-MH)],and bone resorption [cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx)].
Subjects in C and CP groups combined experienced greater increases in body mass and total muscle thickness than PLA (P < 0.05). Subjects who received CP increased lean tissue mass (+5.6%) more than C (+2.2%) or PLA (+1.0%; P < 0.05) and increased bench press strength (+25%) to a greater extent than C and PLA combined (+12.5%; P < 0.05). CP and C did not differ from PLA for changes in formaldehyde production (+24% each). Subjects receiving creatine (C and CP) experienced a decrease in 3-MH by 40% compared with an increase of 29% for PLA (P < 0.05) and a reduction in NTx (-27%) versus PLA (+13%; P = 0.05).
Low-dose creatine combined with protein supplementation increases lean tissue mass and results in a greater relative increase in bench press but not leg press strength. Low-dose creatine reduces muscle protein degradation and bone resorption without increasing formaldehyde production.
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