Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Synthetic Galactosyloligosaccharides Contain 3’-, 4-, and 6’-Galactosyllactose and Attenuate Inflammation in Human T84, NCM-460, and H4 Cells and Intestinal Tissue Ex Vivo.
Newburg DS J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):358-67.
The immature intestinal mucosa responds excessively to inflammatory insult, but human milk protects infants from intestinal inflammation. The ability of galactosyllactoses [galactosyloligosaccharides (GOS)], newly found in human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), to suppress inflammation was not known.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test whether GOS can directly attenuate inflammation and to explore the components of immune signaling modulated by GOS.
METHODS: Galactosyllactose composition was measured in sequential human milk samples from days 1 through 21 of lactation and in random colostrum samples from 38 mothers. Immature [human normal fetal intestinal epithelial cell (H4)] and mature [human metastatic colonic epithelial cell (T84) and human normal colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM-460)] enterocyte cell lines were treated with the pro-inflammatory molecules tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or infected with Salmonella or Listeria. The inflammatory response was measured as induction of IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), or macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) protein by ELISA and mRNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The ability of HMOS or synthetic GOS to attenuate this inflammation was tested in vitro and in immature human intestinal tissue ex vivo.
RESULTS: The 3 galactosyllactoses (3’-GL, 4-GL, and 6’-GL) expressed in colostrum rapidly declined over early lactation (P < 0.05). In H4 cells, HMOS attenuated TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8, MIP-3α, and MCP-1 to 48-51% and pathogen-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 to 26-30% of positive controls (P < 0.001). GOS reduced TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses to 25-26% and pathogen-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 to 36-39% of positive controls (P < 0.001). GOS and HMOS mitigated nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65. HMOS quenched the inflammatory response to Salmonella infection by immature human intestinal tissue ex vivo to 26% and by GOS to 50% of infected controls (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Galactosyllactose attenuated NF-κB inflammatory signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells and in human immature intestine. Thus, galactosyllactoses are strong physiologic anti-inflammatory agents in human colostrum and early milk, contributing to innate immune modulation. The potential clinical utility of galactosyllactose warrants investigation.
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