Fast food consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome after 3-years of follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013) 67, 1303–1309; Z Bahadoran
There are growing concern globally regarding fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes. In this study we investigated whether fast food consumption could affect the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) after 3-years of follow-up in adults.
This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intakes of participants were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline (2006–2008) and 3 years later (2009–2011). Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of fast food consumption.
The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. Participants in the highest quartile of fast food consumption were younger (33.7 vs 43.4 years, P
Higher consumption of fast food was accompanied with more increase in serum triglyceride levels and triglyceride to HDL-C ratio after the 3-year follow-up. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, the risk of metabolic syndrome, in the highest quartile of fast foods compared with the lowest, was 1.85 (95% CI=1.17–2.95). The effects of fast food consumption on the occurrence of MetS were more pronounced in younger adults (<30 years), and participants who had greater wait to hip ratio, consumed less phytochemical-rich foods or had low-fiber diet (P<0.05).
We demonstrated that higher consumption of fast foods had undesirable effects on metabolic syndrome after 3-years of follow-up in Iranian adults.