High protein diets do not attenuate decrements in testosterone and IGF-I during energy deficit
Paul C. Henning Metabolism Available online 17 February 2014
Energy deficit (ED) diminishes fat-free mass (FFM) with concomitant reductions in anabolic hormone secretion. A modest increase in protein to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) levels during ED minimally attenuates decrements in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The impact of dietary protein above the RDA on circulating anabolic hormones and their relationships with FFM in response to ED are not well described.
Thirty-three adults were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 (RDA), 1.6 (2X-RDA), and 2.4 (3X-RDA) g/kg/d for 31 days. Testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I system components were assessed after a 10-day period of weight-maintenance (WM) and after a 21-day period of ED (40%) achieved by an increase in energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. Associations between the change in FFM and anabolic hormone levels were determined.
As compared to WM and regardless of dietary protein intake, total and free testosterone, total IGF-I, and acid-labile subunit decreased (P< 0.05), whereas SHBG and IGF binding proteins-1, -2, and − 3 increased
(P < 0.05) during ED. There were no energy-by-protein interactions on any hormones or IGF-I system components measured. Changes in FFM in response to ED were negatively associated with acid-labile subunit (ALS) (r = − 0.62, P < 0.05) in 2X-RDA; however, no other relationships were observed.
Consuming a high protein diet does not impact the androgenic and IGF-I system response to ED. These data suggest that the protective effects of high protein diets on FFM during ED are likely not influenced by anabolic hormone concentrations.
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