Echauffement et blessures

L’acide carnosique du romarin comme protecteur articulaire?

13/03/2018 | Echauffement et blessures et Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Anti-âge


Carnosic acid inhibits inflammation response and joint destruction on osteoclasts, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and collagen-induced arthritis rats
Mei Liu       J. Cell. Physiol.      9 March 2018

The discovery of new therapeutic drugs with the ability of preventing inflammation and joint destruction with less adverse effects is urgently needed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Carnosic acid (CA), a major phenolic compound isolated from the leaves of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), has been reported to have antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. However, its effects on RA have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of CA on osteoclasts and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro and on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Wistar rats in vivo. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that CA suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFɑ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and MMP-3, and downregulated the production of RANKL. More importantly, we observed that CA inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and exerted therapeutic protection against joint destruction in vivo. Further biochemical analysis demonstrated that CA suppressed RANKL-induced activations of NF-κB and MAPKs (JNK and p38) leading to the downregulation of NFATc1.

Taken together, our findings provide the convincing evidence that rosemary derived CA is a promising natural compound for the treatment of RA.

Cryothérapie Corps Entier Vs eau froide pour la récupération?

10/01/2018 | Etudes cardio et Echauffement et blessures


Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control
Laura J. Wilson     European Journal of Applied Physiology January 2018, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 153–163 | Cite as

Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular recovery strategy used in an attempt to attenuate the negative impact of strenuous physical activity on subsequent exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) and cold water immersion (CWI) on markers of recovery following a marathon.

Thirty-one endurance trained males completed a marathon. Participants were randomly assigned to a CWI, WBC or placebo group. Perceptions of muscle soreness, training stress and markers of muscle function were recorded before the marathon and at 24 and 48 h post exercise. Blood samples were taken at baseline, post intervention and 24 and 48 h post intervention to assess inflammation and muscle damage.

WBC had a harmful effect on muscle function compared to CWI post marathon. WBC positively influenced perceptions of training stress compared to CWI. With the exception of C-reactive protein (CRP) at 24 and 48 h, neither cryotherapy intervention positively influenced blood borne markers of inflammation or structural damage compared to placebo.

The findings show WBC has a negative impact on muscle function, perceptions of soreness and a number of blood parameters compared to CWI, contradicting the suggestion that WBC may be a superior recovery strategy. Further, cryotherapy is no more effective than a placebo intervention at improving functional recovery or perceptions of training stress following a marathon. These findings lend further evidence to suggest that treatment belief and the placebo effect may be largely responsible for the beneficial effects of cryotherapy on recovery following a marathon.

Effet contra-latéral du foam roller

23/12/2017 | Echauffement et blessures


Does Foam Rolling Increase Pressure Pain Threshold Of Ipsilateral Lower Extremity Antagonist And Contralateral Muscles?
Scott W. Cheatham   Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 49(5S):1066, May 2017.

Sports medicine professionals often prescribe foam rolling as an intervention to treat myofascial restrictions. Of particular interest, is the effect foam rolling has on the ipsilateral antagonist muscle and contralateral muscles. Recent research has observed ROM changes in these muscles after a foam rolling intervention. To date, no studies have examined how foam rolling effects the pressure pain threshold (PPT) levels of the ipsilateral antagonist and contralateral muscles. PURPOSE: To examine the acute effects of a foam rolling intervention on ipsilateral antagonist and contralateral muscle group PPT levels. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy participants (mean age 27.52± 8.9 years) (M=13, F=8) were recruited for this study and signed an IRB consent. Participants underwent pretest and immediate posttest PPT measures after a 2-minute video-guided foam roll intervention to the left quadriceps. PPTs were measured using a digital algometer to the ipsilateral left hamstrings and right quadriceps. Pretest and posttest measures were calculated using the paired t-test. Statistical significance was considered p< 0.05 using a two-tailed test. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between pretest to posttest measures for the ipsilateral hamstrings (t (20) = -6.2, p<0.001) and contralateral quadriceps (t (20) = -9.1, p<0.001) suggesting an increase in PPT.

CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that foam rolling of the quadriceps musculature may have an acute effect on the PPT of the ipsilateral hamstrings and contralateral quadriceps muscles. Individual may feel less discomfort due to a higher PPT. The ipsilateral decrease in hamstring PPT may have occurred through reciprocal inhibition and agonist pain perception from rolling on the left quadriceps. The cross-over effect of decreased right quadriceps PPT may have been from a more global neurophysiological response. Clinicians must consider these results to be exploratory and future investigations examining this intervention on PPT is warranted.

Chaleur ou froid pour optimiser l’anabolisme?

22/11/2017 | Echauffement et blessures et Etudes Musculation


Plus d’anabolisme, moins de catabolisme avec…

Impact of local heating and cooling on skeletal muscle transcriptional response related to myogenesis and proteolysis
Roksana B. Zak European Journal of Applied Physiology October 2017


To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise.


Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8–12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise.


MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0.05). Myostatin, MYF5, and atrogin-1 mRNA decreased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0.05). Myogenin, MRF4, and CASP3 mRNA were higher in the hot condition, compared to the cold (p < 0.05). PAX7 mRNA was lower in the hot compared to cold condition (p = 0.041). FOXO3 mRNA was higher in the cold compared to hot condition (p = 0.037). AKT1 and AKT2 were unaffected by either exercise or temperature. Femoral artery blood flow volume was higher in the hot (375.2 ± 41.2 ml min− 1), compared to the cold condition (263.5 ± 23.9 ml min− 1), p = 0.01. Tissue oxygen saturation was higher in the hot (71.7 ± 4.8%) than cold condition (55.3 ± 5.0%).


These results suggest an impaired muscle growth response with local cold application compared to local heat application.

Une blessure peut avoir des conséquences psychologiques graves

08/12/2016 | Echauffement et blessures


Are severe musculoskeletal injuries associated with symptoms of common mental disorders among male European professional footballers?
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy December 2016, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 3934–3942   Vincent Gouttebarge


To explore the associations of severe musculoskeletal injuries (joint and muscles) and surgeries with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour , smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among male European professional footballers.


Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on electronic questionnaires completed by professional footballers recruited from the national players’ unions of Finland, France, Norway, Spain or Sweden. The number of severe (time loss of more than 28 days) musculoskeletal injuries (total, joint, muscle) and surgeries during a professional football career was examined through four questions, while symptoms of common mental disorders were evaluated through validated scales.


A total of 540 professional footballers (mean age of 27 years; 54 % playing in the highest leagues) participated in the study. Sixty-eight per cent of the participants had already incurred one or more severe joint injuries and 60 % one or more severe muscle injuries. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 3 % for smoking to 37 % for anxiety/depression and 58 % for adverse nutrition behaviour. The number of severe musculoskeletal injuries during a football career was positively correlated with distress, anxiety and sleeping disturbance, while the number of surgeries was correlated with adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking. Professional footballers who had sustained one or more severe musculoskeletal injuries during their career were two to nearly four times more likely to report symptoms of common mental disorders than professional footballers who had not suffered from severe musculoskeletal injuries.


It can be concluded that the number of severe musculoskeletal injuries and surgeries during a career is positively correlated and associated with symptoms of common mental disorders among male European professional footballers. This study emphasises the importance of applying a multidisciplinary approach to the clinical care and support of professional footballers, especially when a player faces lengthy periods without training and competition as a consequence of recurrent severe joint or muscle injuries.

De nouvelles cellules souches découvertes dans les muscles

30/09/2016 | Echauffement et blessures et Etudes Musculation


The first characterization of a novel (non-satellite cell) stem cell population in human skeletal muscle
J.P. Nederveen     Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. Vol. 41, 2016 S376

Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells; SC) represent the primary
cell population responsible for muscle regeneration/repair. SC content
and activation has been show to increase in response to muscle
damaging exercise. However, non-satellite cell progenitors, under experimental
conditions in animals, have been identified to form skeletal
when the SC population is compromised. PW1+ interstitial
cells (PIC) have also been shown, experimentally, to contribute to
muscle repair in animals. This cell population, however, has never
been identified in humans. We sought to examine the changes in both
PIC and SC content following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Ten
sedentary males (24±3 years of age; mean±SEM) were recruited. Percutaneous
muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken
prior to a bout of eccentric exercise (Pre), and 6h, 24h, and 72 h
post-exercise. Muscle fiber size, SC and PIC content were determined
via immunofluorescent microscopy. mRNA expression was assessed
by RT-PCR. The number of SC increased from Pre (10.3±0.8 Pax7+cells/
100 fibers) to 72h post-exercise (12.3±2.0 Pax7+cells/100 fibers, p<0.05).
Similarly, PW1+ cells increased from Pre (2.1±0.6 PW1+ cells/100 fibers)
to 72h post-exercise (6.8±2.5 PW1+ cells/100 fibers, p<0.05). PW1 mRNA
expression was significantly (p<0.05) increased 1.9-fold from Pre to
72h post-exercise. Here, for the first time in humans, we identify a
population of cells which are located in the interstitium that respond
to eccentrically-induced muscle damage in a similar fashion to SC.


Comment la santé des reins affecte la masse musculaire?

28/09/2016 | Echauffement et blessures et Etudes Anti-âge


Low glomerular filtration rate as an associated risk factor for sarcopenic muscle strength: is creatinine or cystatin C-based estimation more relevant?
Asli Tufan       The Aging Male     Pages 1-5 | Received 04 Jul 2016,  Published online: 20 Sep 2016

Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the association of a decreased glomerular-filtration-rate (GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), estimated using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), creatinine- and cystatin C-based (CKDEPI-CR and CKDEPI-CC) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations with handgrip strength (HGS).

Methods: Community-dwelling males aged ≥60 years admitted to outpatient clinic were included. We used MDRD, CKDEPI-CR, and CKDEPI-CC formulas for GFR estimation and corrected these for body surface area. Muscle strength was assessed by HGS.

Results: 209 men (mean age 67.8 ± 6.4) were enrolled. Sixty-two patients (29.7%) had sarcopenic HGS. Subjects with sarcopenic HGS were older, had higher rate of a GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, had lower mid-upper arm circumference; tended to have lower creatine kinase, albumin, CKDEPI-CC-GFR levels; and higher BUN/creatinine ratio and cystatin C. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a CKDEPI-CC lower than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 as the only independent factor underlying sarcopenic HGS. Higher age tended to have an independent association. Only higher age was independently associated with low HGS when other estimations were used (p = 0.013 and p = 0.021 when MDRD and CKDEPI-CR were used, respectively).

Conclusions: There is a strong association of a GFR level of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with sarcopenic HGS, when CKDEPI-CC formula is used.

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