Etudes Perte de poids

Irisine: le lien entre la muscu et le renforcement osseux?

14/03/2018 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge


Myokine—Irisin—and Its Effects Linking Bone and Muscle Function
Graziana Colaianni           Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism March 2018, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 16–21

Irisin is a myokine secreted by the skeletal muscle during physical activity both in mice and humans. Its first identified role was to activate the browning response in white adipocytes, subsequently triggering non-shivering thermogenesis; therefore, Irisin has raised great expectations as a potential target in the treatment of obesity. In 2015, we demonstrated that Irisin plays a central role in the control of bone mass, driving positive effects on cortical mineral density and bone mechanical properties. This effect on the bone was triggered using an Irisin dosage 70 times lower than the one needed to induce the browning response, suggesting that the skeleton is the primary target organ of this myokine. Moreover, our studies also highlighted the autocrine effect of Irisin on the skeletal muscle, overall suggesting that Irisin plays a fundamental role in the physiology of the musculoskeletal system. More recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of Irisin in preventing and restoring bone and muscle losses in a mouse model affected by disuse-induced osteoporosis and muscular atrophy. Hopefully, if future investigations will be confirmed in humans, it may lead to develop an Irisin-based therapy for physically disable or bedridden patients and it might also represent a countermeasure for astronauts subjected to microgravity.

Du propionate de sodium pour perdre du gras?

13/03/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids


Acute oral sodium propionate supplementation raises resting energy expenditure and lipid oxidation in fasted humans
Edward S. Chambers   Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Content Alert: 20, 4 (April 2018)

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism.

Previous work using rodent models has demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 women and 9 men; age 25 ± 1 years; body mass index 24.1 ± 1.2 kg/m2) completed 2 study visits following an overnight fast.

Tablets containing a total of 6845 mg sodium propionate or 4164 mg sodium chloride were provided over the 180-minute study period in random order. REE and substrate oxidation were assessed by indirect calorimetry. Oral sodium propionate administration increased REE (0.045 ± 0.020 kcal/min; P = .036); this was accompanied by elevated rates of whole-body lipid oxidation (0.012 ± 0.006 g/min; P = .048) and was independent of changes in glucose and insulin concentrations. Future studies are warranted to determine whether the acute effects of oral sodium propionate on REE translate into positive improvements in long-term energy balance in humans.

Effet d’une supplémentation en corps cétoniques sur la glycémie?

17/02/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge


Prior ingestion of exogenous ketone monoester attenuates the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy young individuals
Etienne Myette-Côté              The Journal of Physiology               15 February 2018  

The main objectives of this study were threefold: (1) To determine whether acute ingestion of Kme; (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (2) To compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute Kme supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18–35 years took part in a randomized crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a Kme supplement (ΔG®; 0.45 ml kg−1 body weight) or placebo (water) 30 min before completing a 75-gram OGTT. Blood samples were collected every 15–30 min over a period of 2.5 h. Participants and study personnel performing laboratory analyses were blinded to condition. Kme acutely raised blood D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) to 3.2±0.6 mm within 30 min with levels remaining elevated throughout the entire OGTT. Compared to placebo, Kme significantly decreased glucose area under the curve (AUC; −16%, P = 0.001), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) AUC (-44%, P

< 0.001) and C-peptide incremental AUC (P = 0.005), while improving oral glucose insulin sensitivity index by ∼11% (P = 0.001).

In conclusion, a

Kme supplement that acutely increased β-OHB levels up to ∼3 mm attenuated the glycemic response to an OGTT in healthy humans. The reduction in glycemic response did not appear to be driven by an increase in insulin secretion, but was accompanied by improved markers of insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that ketone monoester supplements could have therapeutic potential in the management and prevention of metabolic disease.

Rôle des recepteurs aux androgènes sur la masse grasse

02/02/2018 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Perte de poids


The androgen receptor in bone marrow progenitor cells negatively regulates fat mass
Patricia K Russell J Endo 2018

It is well established that testosterone negatively regulates fat mass in humans and mice, however the mechanism by which testosterone exerts these effects is poorly understood. We and others have shown that deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice results in a phenotype that mimics the three key clinical aspects of hypogonadism in human males; increased fat mass, and decreased bone and muscle mass. We now show that replacement of the AR gene specifically in mesenchymal progenitor cells (PCs) residing in the bone marrow of Global-ARKO mice, in the absence of the AR in all other tissues (PC-AR Gene Replacements), completely attenuates their increased fat accumulation. Inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue and intra-abdominal retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue depots in PC-AR Gene Replacement mice were 50-80% lower than wild type (WT) and 75-90% lower than Global-ARKO controls at 12 weeks of age. The marked decrease in subcutaneous and viceral fat mass in PC-AR Gene Replacements was associated with an increase in the number of small adipocytes and a healthier metabolic profile compared to WT controls, characterised by normal serum leptin and elevated serum adiponectin levels. Euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies reveal that the PC-AR Gene replacement mice have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity with higher glucose infusion rates compared to WT mice and increased glucose uptake into subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat.

In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence for an action of androgens via the AR in mesenchymal bone marrow PCs to negatively regulate fat mass and improve metabolic function.

Les vêtements de sudation font-ils brûler plus de calories?

23/12/2017 | Etudes cardio et Etudes Perte de poids


Acute Metabolic Responses of Exercise with a Sauna Suit
Lexie B. Loring     Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 49(5S):926, May 2017.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine acute metabolic responses of exercise with a sauna suit (SS) under different exercise intensity and duration conditions.

METHODS: Twelve physically active men (age = 27.1±7.5 yrs, height = 175.4±6.3 cm, weight = 75.6±7.9 kg, maximal oxygen uptake – VO2max = 38.6±7.8 mL×kg-1×min-1) completed four experimental trials on a cycle ergometer: 1) 30min moderate-intensity (MI) exercise (55-60% heart rate reserve–HRR) with SS, 2) 20min vigorous-intensity (VI) exercise (75-80% HRR) with SS, 3) 30min MI exercise (55-60% HRR) without a sauna suit (CON), and 4) 20min VI exercise (75-80% HRR) CON. Trials were separated by 24-96 hours and performed in randomized order. Exercise energy expenditure (EE), one hour excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and one hour post-exercise weight loss (PEWL) were measured for each trial.

RESULTS: There were significant differences (p

<0.05) in exercise EE, one hour EPOC and one hour PEWL between SS and CON under both MI and VI conditions. MI results:

exercise EE was greater with SS vs. CON (282.6±34.7 kcal vs. 247.8±40.2 kcal), one hour EPOC was greater with SS vs. CON (69.9±4.3 kcal vs. 45.2±3.0 kcal), and the SS condition resulted in greater change in one hour PEWL (0.52±0.14 kg vs. 0.37±0.15 kg). VI results: exercise EE was greater with SS vs. CON (204.7±24.2 kcal vs. 184.6±21.3 kcal), one hour EPOC was greater with SS vs. CON (87.7±7.0 kcal vs. 72.1±3.4 kcal), and the SS condition resulted in greater change in one hour PEWL (0.63±0.15 kg vs. 0.39±0.12 kg).

CONCLUSION: Our findings support the feasibility of exercise training with a sauna suit–and the amplified exercise EE and EPOC–to contribute to long-term energy balance and thus improve cardiovascular health.

Les boosters de NO pour maigrir sur le long terme?

14/12/2017 | Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge et Etudes sur les boosters sexuels et la sexualité


Ca fait quand même un peu beaucoup…

Sildenafil induces browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue in overweight adults
Metabolism Volume 78, January 2018, Pages 106-117

To investigate that short-term treatment of sildenafil can induce browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) in human adults.

A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial.

Sixteen eligibility overweight male subjects were recruited, comparing 100 mg/day sildenafil versus an identical placebo therapy for 7 days. sWAT samples were collected from subjects before and after 7-day sildenafil or placebo interventions.

The results showed that multilocular UCP1-positive adipocytes existed in sWAT samples from subjects after sildenafil treatment. Compared to before treatment in both group as well as after treatment in placebo, sildenafil significantly decreased adipocyte size, increased the expressions of UCP1 protein and mRNA, mitochondrial density, and leak respiratory capacity in sWAT (p < 0.05). Sildenafil also increased plasma cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) and catecholamine concentrations (p < 0.05), and consequently activated the expressions of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6 K1) (p < 0.05). Sildenafil did not activate typical brown fat.

The current findings demonstrate that sildenafil can induce browning of sWAT in human, and this action may be through cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Sldenafil may be a promising treatment for metabolic disease.

Les protéines laitières rapides ont un impact à court et à long terme sur la glycémie

05/11/2017 | Etudes sur les hormones et Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge


Cela explique que l’on peut ne pas le sentir au début puis y devenir sensible

Comparison between pre–exercise casein peptide and intact casein supplementation on glucose tolerance in high–fat diet–fed mice

Yutaka Matsunaga         Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2017

We hypothesized that along with exercise, casein peptide supplementation would have a higher impact on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein. Male six–week–old ICR mice were provided a high–fat diet to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. The mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control (Con), endurance training (Tr), endurance training with intact casein supplementation (Cas+Tr), and endurance training with casein peptide supplementation (CP+Tr). The mice in each group were orally administrated water, intact casein, or casein peptide (1.0 mg/g BW, everyday), and then subjected to endurance training (15–25 m/min, 60 min, 5 times/week for 4 weeks) on a motor–driven treadmill 30 min after ingestion. Our results revealed that total intra–abdominal fat was significantly lower in CP+Tr than in Con (p<0.05). Following an oral glucose tolerance test, the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was found to be significantly smaller for CP+Tr than for Con (p<0.05). Moreover, in the soleus muscle, GLUT4 protein levels were significantly higher in CP+Tr than in Con (p<0.01). However, intra–abdominal fat, blood glucose AUC, and GLUT4 protein content in the soleus muscle did not alter in Tr and Cas+Tr when compared with Con. These observations suggest that pre–exercise casein peptide supplementation has a higher effect on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein does in high–fat diet–fed mice.

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