Etudes Perte de poids

La caféine est aussi absorbée par la muqueuse buccale

22/04/2019 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids

 

Caffeine release and absorption from caffeinated gums
Cecile Morris   Food & Function

The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of chewing time on caffeine release from gum and to understand caffeine pharmacokinetics. Caffeine release increased with chewing time (2 min < 5 min

< 10 min). Furthermore, two plasma caffeine concentration peaks were observed suggesting that

caffeine absorption occurs both through the oral mucosa and gastrointestinal tract. This is of practical relevance to maximise caffeine doses and to synchronise effort with peak caffeine concentration.

Nouveau bénéfices de la mélatonine contre le cancer?

07/12/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge

 

Adjuvant chemotherapy with melatonin for targeting human cancers: A review
Masoud Najafi         Journal of Cellular Physiology           07 September 2018

Melatonin is a multifunctional hormone that has long been known for its antitumoral effects. An advantage of the application of melatonin in cancer therapy is its ability to differentially influence tumors from normal cells. In this review, the roles of melatonin adjuvant therapy in human cancer are discussed.

Combination of melatonin with chemotherapy could provide synergistic antitumoral outcomes and resolve drug resistance in affected patients. This combination reduces the dosage for chemotherapeutic agents with the subsequent attenuation of side effects related to these drugs on normal cells around tumor and on healthy organs. The combination therapy increases the rate of survival and improves the quality of life in affected patients. Cancer cell viability is reduced after application of the combinational melatonin therapy.

Melatonin does all these functions by adjusting the signals involved in cancer progression, re‐establishing the dark/light circadian rhythm, and disrupting the redox system for cancer cells. To achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, melatonin concentration along with the time of incubation for this indoleamine needs to be adjusted. Importantly, a special focus is required to be made on choosing an appropriate chemotherapy agent for using in combination with melatonin. Because of different sensitivities of cancer cells for melatonin combination therapy, cancer‐specific targeted therapy is also needed to be considered. For this review, the PubMed database was searched for relevant articles based on the quality of journals, the novelty of articles published by the journals, and the number of citations per year focusing only on human cancers.

Peut-on perdre du muscle en gardant sa force au régime?

28/11/2018 | Etudes Musculation et Etudes Perte de poids

 

Si tu veux clacher tous les coachs à la mode

A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Mass Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes
Greene, David A       The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: December 2018 - Volume 32 - Issue 12 - p 3373–3382

There is evidence that low carbohydrate diets might offer specific advantages for weight reduction without the negative impact on strength and power previously hypothesized to accompany carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) could be used as a weight reduction strategy for athletes competing in the weight class sports of powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting.

Fourteen intermediate to elite competitive lifting athletes (age 34 ± 10.5, n = 5 female) consumed an ad libitum usual diet (UD) (>250 g daily intake of carbohydrates) and an ad libitum LCKD (≤50 g or ≤10% daily intake of carbohydrates) in random order, each for 3 months in a crossover design. Lifting performance, body composition, resting metabolic rate, blood glucose, and blood electrolytes were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.

The LCKD phase resulted in significantly lower body mass (−3.26 kg, p = 0.038) and lean mass (−2.26 kg, p = 0.016) compared with the UD phase.

Lean mass losses were not reflected in lifting performances that were not different between dietary phases.

No other differences in primary or secondary outcome measures were found between dietary phases. Weight class athletes consuming an ad libitum LCKD decreased body mass and achieved lifting performances that were comparable with their UD. Coaches and athletes should consider using an LCKD to achieve targeted weight reduction goals for weight class sports.

Le jus de cassis comme inhibiteur MAO?

10/10/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge et Etudes sur les boosters sexuels et la sexualité

 

The pharmacodynamic profile of “Blackadder” blackcurrant juice effects upon the monoamine axis in humans: A randomised controlled trial
Anthony W. Watson       Nutritional Neuroscience         05 Oct 2018

Emerging evidence from human intervention trials indicates health benefits of consuming blackcurrant fruit, including improvements to cognitive performance, modulation of blood flow, regulation of blood glucose and inhibition of enzymes underpinning normal cognitive function. Of particular relevance is our previous demonstration of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and B inhibition after the consumption of a New Zealand “Blackadder” blackcurrant juice in humans.

The current study uses a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross- over design to assess the pharmacodynamics of the effects on platelet MAO-B inhibition and associated substrates, plasma prolactin levels and blood glucose levels after consumption of a single serve of “Blackadder” blackcurrant juice standardised to 500 mg polyphenols. Eight healthy male (20-–35 years) participants completed the trial. Measurements were obtained at baseline 15, 30, 45, 60, 100, 120, 150, 180, 240 mins and 24 h post dose.

A fast, absolute and reversible inhibition of blood platelet MAO-B (P 

< 0.001) and a significant but delayed reduction in plasma prolactin (P 

< 0.001) were observed following the consumption of “Blackadder” blackcurrant juice when compared to a placebo control. No interpretable changes in substrates of MAO or associated metabolites were seen.

These data provide a clear time course of the reversible inhibition of MAO-B after the single consumption of a of New Zealand “Blackadder” blackcurrant juice standardised at

500 mg of polyphenols and, therefore, provide a therapeutic window on which to base future nutritional interventions.

α‐Cedrene pour plus de muscle?

19/06/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge

 

α‐Cedrene, a Newly Identified Ligand of MOR23, Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength
Tao Tong Molecular Nutrition &  Food Research 14 June 2018

Scope
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the effects of α‐cedrene, a natural ligand of mouse olfactory receptor 23 (MOR23) whose ectopic function regulating myogenesis was reported recently, on skeletal muscle growth.

Methods and results
α‐Cedrene, not only stimulated hypertrophy but also attenuated free fatty acid–induced atrophy of cultured skeletal myotubes, as evidenced by an increased myotube diameter, fusion index, and total cellular protein content. These hypertrophic and antiatrophic properties of α‐cedrene in cultured myotubes were confirmed in corresponding mouse models. The skeletal muscle mass, total muscle protein content, average cross‐sectional area of myofibers, and muscle strength were significantly greater in α‐cedrene–treated mice compared with untreated animals during either a regular chow diet or high‐fat diet. Receptor knockdown experiments using RNA interference in cultured skeletal myotubes revealed that the hypertrophic and antiatrophic properties of α‐cedrene may be mediated by MOR23. Furthermore, α‐cedrene induced the expression of MOR23 and enhanced its downstream cAMP–PKA–CREB signaling in the skeletal muscle of mice fed chow or high‐fat diet.

Conclusions
α‐Cedrene is a promising agent that may be applied to enhance the mass and strength of skeletal muscle.

Pourquoi le diabète augmente le niveau de BCAA sanguins?

10/06/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge

 

Fasting serum amino acids concentration is associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice Volume 140, June 2018, Pages 107-117               Sang-GukLee
Highlights
• Serum branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) were increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
• Serum non-BCAAs were also elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes.
• HOMA-IR and pro-inflammatory cytokines were independent predictors of amino acid.
• Insulin resistance or inflammatory cytokines could induce skeletal muscle proteolysis.
• Elevated serum amino acids are an early manifestation of impaired insulin action.

Aims
We evaluated specific alterations in amino acids (AAs) profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) compared with healthy controls. In addition, we tried to find the mechanisms behind these AA alterations.

Methods
Twenty AAs, TNF-α, and IL-6 were analyzed in fasting serum samples from a total of 198 individuals (56 drug-naïve patients with T2DM, 69 patients IFG, and 73 healthy controls). The C2C12 mouse myoblast cell lines were used to examine the changes of MAFbx and MuRF1 expressions, which are muscle specific E3 ligases acting as major mediators of skeletal muscle proteolysis, after development of insulin resistance induced by palmitate treatment.

Results
In addition to branched chain amino acids BCAAs, fasting serum AAs such as glutamic acid, lysine, phenylalanine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, were higher in patients with T2DM and intermediately elevated in patients with IFG compared with normoglycemic controls. These serum AA concentrations positively correlated with fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, HOMA-IR and pro-inflammatory cytokines were two important independent predictors of serum AA levels. In vitro experiments showed that palmitate treatment in C2C12 myotubes induced insulin resistance, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased MAFbx gene and protein expression.

Conclusions
The increase in fasting serum AAs can be an early manifestation of insulin resistance. Increased muscle proteolysis induced by insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokines can be a possible mechanism for the rise in serum AA levels.

Comment une alimentation acide agresse les reins?

25/05/2018 | Etudes Compléments alimentaires et Etudes Perte de poids et Etudes Anti-âge

 

Kidney Response to the Spectrum of Diet-Induced Acid Stress
Nimrit Goraya                     Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 596;


Chronic ingestion of the acid (H+)-producing diets that are typical of developed societies appears to pose a long-term threat to kidney health. Mechanisms employed by kidneys to excrete this high dietary H+ load appear to cause long-term kidney injury when deployed over many years. In addition, cumulative urine H+ excretion is less than the cumulative increment in dietary H+, consistent with H+ retention. This H+ retention associated with the described high dietary H+ worsens as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines which further exacerbates kidney injury. Modest H+ retention does not measurably change plasma acid–base parameters but, nevertheless, causes kidney injury and might contribute to progressive nephropathy. Current clinical methods do not detect H+ retention in its early stages but the condition manifests as metabolic acidosis as it worsens, with progressive decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

We discuss this spectrum of H+ injury, which we characterize as “H+ stress”, and the emerging evidence that high dietary H+ constitutes a threat to long-term kidney health.

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